Cac ban dic.h Kinh Thanh


Trch sach "Responses to 101 Questions" cua R.E. Brown cau 1-2

C. 1. Ban dch Kinh Thanh nao tot nhat?

Ban dch thch hp hay khong con tuy muc ch cua viec oc Kinh Thanh. Viec oc ni cong cong, chang han nhng bai oc trong thanh le hoac trong cac gi kinh nguyen chung, oi hoi s trang trong. V the, dung ban dch qua bnh dan th se khong hp. Trai lai, khi oc rieng e suy niem, hoac cau nguyen, th nen dung mot ban dch c trnh bay ep mat, li van de oc, de hieu. Ngoai ra, khi oc e hoc hoi, nghien cu, th nen co mot ban dch sat tng ch - mot ban dch van con gi lai s ham ho toi y cua ban goc.

Co le cau tra li bao quat tot nhat ma toi co the cung hien cho cac ban la neu len iem nay: Cac ban goc cua Kinh thanh bang tieng Hp-ri, tieng A-ram, hoac tieng Hi-lap, co nhieu oan phc tap kho hieu, nhieu cau ham ho toi y. Co khi tac gia viet khong ro rang, va roi dch gia phai oan y. V the, ho phai quyet nh hoac dch sat tng ch va gi nguyen s ham ho toi ngha, hoac dch t do rong rai hn va co gang lam sang to s ham ho toi ngha o. Ban dch sat can co nhng bai dan giai in kem, hoac co phan chu thch di chan cac trang, trnh bay nhng giai phap hien co cho cac oan toi ngha. Mat khac, trong ban dch t do, dch gia a t nh oat y ngha cho nhng oan toi ngha. Xet theo mot kha canh nao o th li chu giai a c khai trien san trong mach van cua ban dch, va v ly do nay, ban dch t do oc th de, nhng dung e nghien cu th kho.


C. 2. Vay Cha gii thieu ban dch Kinh Thanh nao?

V cau tra li cho cau 2 va 3 ch lien quan ti nhng ban dch Kinh Thanh bang Anh ng, nen cha Brown a yeu cau chung toi bo tuc phan cac ban dch tieng Viet. Da tren mot so chi tiet ma cha Nguyen cong oan, Dong Ten, a cung cap, chung toi xin tam bo tuc nh sau.

Noi chung th cac ban Kinh thanh tieng Viet co the chia ra nh sau:

  1. Ban dch t nhng ngon ng th hai,
  2. Toan bo Kinh thanh dch t nguyen ng, va
  3. Tan c dch Tan c t nguyen ng Hy Lap.

  1. Nhng ban dch t cac ngon ng th hai

    1. T tieng La tinh:
      Cha Tran c Huan a dch toan bo Kinh thanh t ban La tinh Pho thong: phan Tan c c xuat ban nam 1959 va Cu c nam 1968. Xem ra ban nay khong con thnh hanh lam. Ngoai ra, ban Kinh thanh cua Uy Ban Phung Vu dch trc nam 1975 cung t ban La tinh Pho thong. Cac bai oc trong thanh le c trch t ban nay. V voi nen ban dch nay con nhieu thieu xot va khong c xuat ban. Tuy nhien, nha xuat ban bao Trai Tim c Me (Dong ong cong) a gom gop nhng bai Phuc am trong sach le, va cho xuat ban cuon "Tin Mng Chua Giesu" nam 1988. Ban nay co le se c sa va xuat ban vao nam 1996.

    2. T tieng Phap:
      Ban "Kinh Thanh Tan c" cua co Hong y Trnh van Can, nam 1981. Ban nay bnh dan, de oc. ay la mot cong trnh rat thien ch nhng gii han.

    3. T tieng Trung Hoa:
      Ban Tan c cua Cha Tran van Kiem c xuat ban tai Hoa ky nam 1994. Ban dch nay phan ln da theo mot ban tieng Trung hoa. D nhien ban tieng Trung hoa c dch t nguyen ban, va dch gia a tham khao nhng ban dch cua cac ngon ng khac nh ban New Jerusalem Bible va ban New American Bible cua Anh ng.

  2. Toan bo Kinh Thanh dch t cac nguyen ng.

    Ban dch cua Cha Nguyen the Thuan, Dong Chua Cu The, la ban duy nhat co ca Cu c va Tan c dch t cac nguyen ng Kinh thanh. Cha Thuan a lam viec trong hang 20 nam tri, nhng rat tiec cha a qua i nam 1975, trc khi hoan thanh cong trnh nay. V the, ba sach Huan ca, Giot va Ba-ruc, cong them phan chu giai cua ba sach o, a c dch sau nay, va toan bo Kinh thanh c in sau nam 1975. Nhn chung, ay la mot cong trnh khoa hoc uyen bac, rat co ch cho ngi nghien cu. Theo quan niem phien dch co ien, ban nay dch bam sat tng ch. Them vao o, cha lai dung nhieu t Han Viet nen cau van tieng Viet oi khi kho hieu. Ngoai ra, ay la cong trnh do mot ngi lam, va v the, u iem cua no la de thong nhat, tat nhien khuyet iem cua no la gii han kha nang cua mot ngi.
  3. Cac ban Tan c dch t tieng Hi-lap.

    1. Ban "Tin Mng cua Thien Chua Cha" cua Cha An-sn V, nam 1977. Ban dch cua cha V la mot cong trnh ca nhan. Cha V khong c ao tao chuyen mon ve Kinh thanh, nhng co mot vai trc giac hay, co thien ch va chu kho nghien cu. Rat tiec, khi van dung cac trc giac ay qua mc th cau tieng Viet nhieu khi tr thanh ngo nghnh. Phan dan nhap va chu thch cua ban nay th lay t ban TOB [Noveau Testament - Traduction Oecumenique de la Bible] va Bible de Jerusalem. Tong hp lai: ay la mot cong trnh thien ch hn la khoa hoc.

    2. Ban dch cua nhom "Cac Gi Kinh Phung vu", nam 1994. ay la mot cong trnh tap the au tien trong lanh vc phien dch Kinh Thanh tai Viet nam. Ban lam viec gom: mot so chuyen vien Kinh thanh tot nghiep Thanh kinh Hoc vien (Roma) va Ecole Biblique (Gierusalem) hoac tai Viet nam, mot so chuyen vien ve phung vu (hoc tai Phap), va mot so tot nghiep cac trng than hoc (Roma). Phan chu thch c soan e ap ng nhu cau cua cac oc gia Viet nam, cha co sach chu giai e tham khao. Trong cac ban dch tieng Viet, ay la ban dch chnh xac nhat hien nay. Hy vong phan Cu c se c xuat ban trong mot ngay gan ay.

Sau ay la cau tra li cua cha Brown:

Trong nhng ban dch sat cua Anh ng , toi thay co 4, 5 dung c. (Toi thng dung nhng ban dch sat khi day hoc v toi muon sinh vien cua toi biet en nhng trac tr cua ban dch.) Toi xin c nhac nh cac ban mot ieu: Nhieu ban dch co tam mc a c sa lai can ke vao cuoi thap nien 1980, hoac ang c hieu nh vao au thap nien 1990. V the, moi ngi phai can than e mua cuon hieu nh mi nhat cua bat c ban dch Kinh Thanh nao.

Ban dch ma toi thng dung nhat la The Revised Standard Version (Ban Tieu Chuan Hieu nh). Mac co nhieu kho khan, noi chung th ban nay oc c, cung nh c dch sat ch mot cach can than. (ay la ban hieu nh cua Ban King James, nhng khong may, thnh thoang no cung b xa vao mot vai vet lay cua Ban King James.) No lam cho ngi Cong Giao hi kho chu v viec s dung cac ch co e noi ve Thien Chua (nh Thou va Thee). Song ieu nay a c sa oi trong ban mi, tc la The New Revised Standard Version (Ban Tieu Chuan Bo Tuc Mi), xuat ban nam 1990. Noi chung th ngi Tin Lanh chnh tong dung ban nay nhieu nhat, nhng ngi Tin Lanh bao thu th van con a Ban King James.

Phan ong giao dan Cong Giao tai My dung ban The New American Bible (Ban Kinh Thanh Mi cua Giao hoi Cong giao Hoa ky). Nhng bai oc trong thanh le thng c trch t o. Phan Cu c cua ban nay dch rat hay, va noi chung th kha hn phan Cu c cua ban Revised Standard Version. Tuy nhien, phan Tan c con nhieu thieu xot tram trong, va mot trong nhng ly do la sau khi ban dch ri khoi tay nhng dch gia au tien th a b sa oi nang ne, ac biet bon Phuc am. Song viec sa oi nay co phan hi vung ve, chang han nh thay ch "reign" ["s tr v"] cho ch "kingdom" ["nc" nh "nc tri"]. Ngoai s thieu chnh xac, phien dch nh the ro rang khong hp vi nhng oan Phuc am dien ta mot ni (nc, vng quoc), thay v mot hanh ong (tr v, cai tr). Them vao o, sa oi nh the con gay hieu lam v Giao dan My thng nghe "reign" ["tr v"] ra ch "rain" ["ma"] (v "reign-tr v" va "rain-ma" eu phien am la "ren", nhng "reign-tr v" th khong thong dung). Tuy nhien, van e nay a khong con na v phan Tan c tren va c dch lai hoan toan vao cuoi thap nien 1980; no se c ra mat vi qu v trong cac gi phung vu vao au thap nien 1990.

Tai Anh quoc, tn hu Cong Giao dung ban The Jerusalem Bible (Kinh Thanh Gierusalem) trong phung vu, va ban nay co nhieu lien-ki-to. Ban Gierusalem au tien cua Anh ng co nhieu thieu xot v no c dch phan ln theo ban Gierusalem tieng Phap, va oi khi dch gia a khong tra khao cac nguyen ban can ke hn. (Ban Gierusalem tieng Phap th chnh xac hn.) Tuy nhien, nhan xet nay a loi thi v ban Anh Ng tren va c sa cha ky cang trong thap nien 1980. Phan chu thch cua ban Gierusalem au tien xem ra a rat ay u va gia tr, the nhng phan chu thch cua ban Gierusalem mi lai con hoan hao hn.